Effect of cysteine peptidase inhibitor of Eudiplozoon nipponicum (Monogenea) on cytokine expression of macrophages in vitro

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Year of publication 2020
Type Article in Periodical
Magazine / Source Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
MU Faculty or unit

Faculty of Science

Doi http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molbiopara.2019.111248
Keywords Monogenea; Cystatin; Cytokines; Immunomodulation; IL-10; TNF-alpha
Description The gills of the common carp, whose mucosal surface belongs to the key defence mechanisms of piscine immunity, can be infested with both the larval and adult stage of Eudiplozoon nipponicum (Monogenea). Although on their own, monogeneans do not considerably compromise their hosts’ health status, fish with epithelial barriers damaged in parasite feeding and attachment sites are at an increased risk of bacterial challenge with possible harmful consequences. Several studies suggest that helminth parasites of teleost fish evade and manipulate host immune system via their excretory-secretory products, but our knowledge of these processes in the monogeneans is limited. Cysteine peptidase inhibitors (CPI), which are found in the secretions of numerous parasites, often induce immunosuppression by subverting Th1 mechanisms and drawing the immune system towards a Th2/Treg response. We employed the qPCR to test the effect of recently characterised CPI of E. nipponicum (rEnStef) on the mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha and anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 produced by porcine macrophages in vitro. After an initial preincubation with rEnStef, we stimulated the macrophages using LPS. By inducing a Th1 pro-inflammatory response, we imitated the immune reaction during a bacterial challenge in tissue damaged by the feeding and attachment of E. nipponicum. We observed a significant dose-dependent downregulation of the expression of TNF-aplha and IL-10 cytokines. The observed suppression of TNF-alpha expression by rEnStef could result in decreased pathogen control, which might in turn lead to increased rates of secondary bacterial infections in fish infected by E. nipponicum.
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